Engineering Functions in Excel  Excel for Engineers
Excel is a capable spreadsheet application that is popular across many industries, including engineering. Engineers and other professionals in technical domains depend on it since it offers a wide range of features that can be utilized to carry out sophisticated calculations and analysis. These engineering routines can assist engineers with unit conversion, computations, data analysis, and other tasks. Engineers can focus on other crucial areas of their work by using these functionalities effectively, which can save them a lot of time and effort.
Type #1: CONVERT Function in Excel
You can convert a value from one unit of measurement to another using Excel’s CONVERT function, which is a powerful function. It can be used to convert between several unit types, including those for time, temperature, mass, and distance.
Syntax of the CONVERT Function:
=CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit)
Argument of CONVERT Function:
number: the value you wish to convert, denoted by the number.
from_unit: The value’s original unit of measurement.
to_unit – The unit of measurement you want to convert the value to is specified by the parameter to unit.
Unit List of CONVERT Function
Examples: Simple Application of CONVERT Function
 Miles to kilometers conversion:
=CONVERT (10,"km","mi") //10 kilometers can be converted to miles.
 Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion:
=CONVERT (25,"C","F") //25 degrees Celsius will be converted to Fahrenheit.
 Pounds to kilos conversion:
=CONVERT (150,"lbm","kg") //150 pounds will be converted to kilos
 Liters to US gallons conversion:
=CONVERT (20,"L","gal") //20 liters can be converted to US gallons.
 Calculating kilometers per hour from meters per second:
=CONVERT(50,"m/s","km/h") //50 meters per second will be converted to kilometers per hour
Type #2: Bessel Functions in Excel
The Bessel functions are employed in many technical and scientific applications, including the solution of differential equations that mimic physical events, the simulation of heat transfer in materials, and the study of the behavior of electromagnetic waves. It is an effective tool for evaluating complicated systems and can assist scientists and engineers in resolving issues that would be challenging or impossible to resolve using other approaches.
However, Excel helps you to calculate the Bessel values by using the following formulas:
Function  BESSELI  BESSELJ  BESSELK  BESSELY 
Syntax  =BESSELI(Î½, x)  =BESSELJ(Î½, x)  =BESSELK(Î½, x)  =BESSELY(Î½, x) 
Argument 


Return  In(x) (modified Bessel function)  Jn(x) (Bessel function)  Kn(x) (modified Bessel function )  Yn(x) (Bessel function) 
Common Errors  #VALUE! error value if x and Î½ are not a number. #NUM! error value if Î½ is less than 0. 
Examples: Application of Bessel functions
Type #3: Converting Between Number System
Functions to convert Binary to Decimal, Hexadecimal, Octal Number System
Function  BIN2DEC  BIN2HEX  BIN2OCT  
Syntax  =BIN2DEC(N)  =BIN2HEX(N,places)  =BIN2OCT(N,places)  
Argument 


Return  Decimal Number  Hexadecimal Number  Octal Number  
Common Errors 

Examples: Converting Binary Number to Decimal, Hexadecimal, Octal Number in Excel
Example #1: BIN2DEC in Excel for Large Number / More than 10 bits (16 bits and 32 bits)
Converting 16 bit Binary Number to Decimal Number
=BIN2DEC(LEFT(B3,8))*2^8+BIN2DEC(RIGHT(B3,8))
Explanation:
 The binary number in cell B3’s first 8 characters (bits) are extracted using the formula LEFT(B3,8). This produces a text value that represents the binary number’s bits.
 The text value is converted to its decimal counterpart by BIN2DEC(LEFT(B3,8)). This provides the binary number’s 1st 8 bits’ decimal value.
 The binary number in cell B3’s last 8 characters (bits) are extracted using the formula RIGHT(B3,8). This produces a text value representing the binary number’s last 8 bits. BIN2DEC(RIGHT(B3,8)) converts those to a decimal value.
 BIN2DEC(LEFT(B3,8))*2^8 means that the first eight bits are moved left by eight locations as a result of this multiplication by two and raising to the power of eight.
 The decimal equivalent of the original binary number is obtained by adding the decimal values acquired using the formula BIN2DEC(LEFT(B3,8))*2^8+BIN2DEC(RIGHT(B3,8)).
Converting 32 bit Binary Number to Decimal Number
Similarly, you can convert 32 bit Binary Number to Decimal Number applying the following formula:
=BIN2DEC(MID(B6,1,8))*2^24+BIN2DEC(MID(B6,9,8))*2^16+BIN2DEC(MID(B6,17,8))*2^8+BIN2DEC(MID(B6,25,8))
Functions to Convert Decimal to Binary, Hexadecimal, Octal Number System
Function  DEC2BIN  DEC2HEX  DEC2OCT 
Syntax  =DEC2BIN(N,places)  =DEC2HEX(N,places)  =DEC2OCT(N,places) 
Argument 


Return  Binary Number  Hexadecimal Number  Octal Number 
Common Errors 

Similarly, you can apply the following Functions
 HEX2BIN Hexadecimal to binary conversion
 HEX2DEC Hexadecimal to decimal conversion
 HEX2OCT Hexadecimal number to an octal number
 OCT2BIN converts an octal number to binary
 OCT2DEC converts an octal number to decimal
 OCT2HEX Hexadecimal to octal number conversion
Examples:
Type #4: Formula for BIT Wise Logics
Function  BITAND  BITOR  BITXOR 
Syntax  =BITAND( N1, N2 )  =BITOR( N1, N2 )  =BITXOR( N1, N2 ) 
Argument  N1 and N2 are positive integers  
Return  Common bits of N1 & N2 in decimal system  bits of N1 & N2 returned in the decimal system after applying OR logic  bits of N1 & N2 returned in the decimal system after applying XOR logic 
Common Errors 

Examples:
Explanation:
 BITAND: Only when both bits of N1 and N2 in the same position are 1, the BITAND function returns 1.
For columns A & B, the values of N1 & N2 are 1 so BITAND Function returns 1
For column C, the values of N1 & N2 are 0 so BITAND Function returns 0
For column D, the values of N1 & N2 are not the same so BITAND Function returns 0
For better understanding you can follow the article on AND Function
 BITOR: returns 1 if any one or both bit of N1 and N2 in the same position is 1
For the 5th column (from left), N1 = 1 and N2 =0, so according to the operation of OR logic 1+0 = 1 is returned.
For better understanding you can follow the article on OR Function
 BITXOR: returns 0 only if both bit of N1 and N2 in the same position is 1 or 0. In other words, BITXOR returns 0 if both bit of N1 and N2 in the same position has the same value.
For better understanding you can follow the article on XOR Function
Type #5: Formula for BIT Wise Shifting
The bitwise operator, represented by the BITLSHIFT and BITRSHIFT functions, is helpful for lowlevel programming tasks like working with binary data or changing bits in hardware.
Function  BITLSHIFT  BITRSHIFT 
Syntax  =BITLSHIFT( N1, N2 )  =BITRSHIFT( N1, N2 ) 
Argument 


Return  Number in Decimal number after shifting bits  
Common Errors 

Examples:
Explanation:
BITLSHIFT: The function shifts the binary digits of the number 5 (101) two positions to the left while adding zeros to the right. It then translates the number 5’s decimal representation to binary. (resulting in 10100). After that, 20 is obtained by converting the shifted binary representation back to a decimal number. Hence, the formula outputs the value 20.
BITRSHIFT: The function moves the binary digits (101) of the decimal number 5 two positions to the right, deleting the rightmost bits, before converting it to its binary form (resulting in 1). The next step is to translate the shifted binary representation back to a decimal value, which is 1. As a result, the formula outputs 1
Type #6: Functions to Compare Numeric Values:
Function  DELTA  GESTEP 
Syntax  =DELTA( N1, N2 )  =GESTEP( N1, N2) 
Argument 


Return  Returns TRUE if N1 = N2, otherwise, FALSE  Returns TRUE if N1 > N2 or N1=N2, Otherwise, FALSE 
Common Errors  #VALUE! If the numbers are not numeric values, error ensues. 
Examples: Simple application of DELTA, GSTEP Function
Type #7: Functions for Complex Number system
COMPLEX Function: Format Complex Numbers in Excel
A complex number is one that can be written in the formula a + bi, where i is the imaginary unit, which is equal to the square root of 1, and a, b are real integers.
A complex number has two parts: a and b, the real and imaginary halves respectively.
The builtin COMPLEX function allows you to calculate complex numbers.
Syntax of Complex Function
=COMPLEX(real_num, [i_num], [suffix])
Argument of COMPLEX Function
real_num: is the complex number’s real component
i_num(optional): is its optional imaginary component (if omitted, it is taken to be zero)
suffix (optional): is a suffix that denotes the complex number’s format (either “i” or “j”; default is “i”).
Examples:
Function to Separate Imaginary and Real Parts of a Complex Number
Function  IMREAL  IMAGINARY 
Syntax  =IMREAL( N )  =IMAGINARY(N ) 
Argument  N is a valid complex number.  
Return  Real part of a complex number  Imaginary part of a complex number 
Common Errors 

Examples:
Function IMABS: Find Magnitude (absolute value) of a Complex Number in Excel
Syntax of IMABS Function
=IMABS(N )
Syntax of IMABS Function
N is a valid complex number.
Return of IMABS Function
Returns the magnitude(z) of complex number
Examples:
Function IMARGUMENT : Find the Phase of a Complex Number in Excel
The IMARGUMENT function allows you to determine a complex number’s phase or argument. The angle formed in the complex plane between the positive real axis and the line leading from the origin to the complex number is known as the phase of a complex number.
Argument or phase of Complex Number = Î¸ = Tan^{1}(b/a)
Syntax of IMARGUMENT function
=IMARGUMENT(N)
Argument of IMARGUMENT Function
N is the complex number you wish to determine the phase for.
The argument must be a complex number, either as a direct value surrounded in double quotes or as a reference to a cell that holds a complex number.
Examples:
Function IMCONJUGATE: Find the conjugate number of a complex number in Excel.
If a + bi, where i is the imaginary unit, can be written, it is a complex number.
The formula z* = a – bi yields the complex conjugate of the complex number z.
Syntax of IMCONJUGATE Function
=IMCONJUGATE( N )
Argument of IMCONJUGATE Function
N is a valid complex number.
Examples:
Functions for Addition and subtraction of Complex numbers in Excel
To add or subtract complex numbers, we simply add or subtract their real and imaginary parts separately.
For example, to add two complex numbers z1 = a1 + b1i and z2 = a2 + b2i, we add their real parts and imaginary parts separately:
z1 + z2 = (a1 + a2) + (b1 + b2)i
Similarly, to subtract two complex numbers z1 and z2, we subtract their real parts and imaginary parts separately:
z1 – z2 = (a1 – a2) + (b1 – b2)i
Let’s see how Excel makes addition and subtraction simple.
Function  IMSUM  IMSUB 
Syntax  IMSUM( N1, N2, … )  IMSUB( N1, N2 ) 
Argument  N1, N2 are the valid complex numbers. 2 to 255 complex numbers can be inserted in a single formula.  
Returns  the resulting complex number after multiplication.  the resulting complex number after subtracting. 
Common Errors 

Examples:
Functions for Multiplication and Division of Complex Numbers in Excel
Function  IMPRODUCT  IMDIV 
Syntax  IMPRODUCT( N1, N2, … )  IMDIV( N1, N2 ) 
Argument  N1, N2 are the valid complex numbers. 2 to 255 complex numbers can be inserted in a single formula.  N1 is the valid complex number and numerator N2 is the valid complex number and the denominator 
Returns  the resulting complex number after multiplication.  the resulting complex number after dividing. 
Common Errors  #NUM! error occurs if N1 and N2 are not valid complex numbers. #VALUE! If the numbers contain logical values.  #NUM! error occurs if N2 =0 #VALUE! If the numbers contain logical values. 
Examples:
Functions to Find power and Squire Root of Complex numbers in Excel
Function  IMSQRT(N )  IMPOWER 
Syntax  =IMSQRT(N )  =IMPOWER( N1, N2 ) 
Argument  N is a valid complex number.  N1 is a valid complex number. N2 is a number at which power to be raised on N1 
Return  Square root of a complex number  the Complex number after raising to power N2 
Common Errors 

Example:
Formula to find Sine and Cosine of a complex number in Excel
Function  IMSIN  IMCOS 
Syntax  =IMSIN( N)  =IMCOS( N) 
Argument  N is a valid complex number.  
Return  Sine of a complex number  Cosine of a complex number 
Common Errors 

Similarly, you can find the hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine of any complex number by IMSINH( N) and IMCOSH( N) functions, respectively.
Examples:
Formula to Find the Tangent and Cotangent of a Complex Number in Excel
Function  IMTAN  IMCOT 
Syntax  =IMTAN( N)  =IMCOT( N) 
Argument  N is a valid complex number.  
Return  Tangent of a complex number  Cotangent of a complex number 
Common Errors 

Examples:
Formula to Find the Secant and Cosecant of a Complex Number in Excel
Function  IMSEC  IMCSC 
Syntax  =IMSEC( N)  =IMCSC( N) 
Argument  N is a valid complex number.  
Return  secant of a complex number  Cosecant of a complex number 
Common Errors 

Similarly, you can find the hyperbolic secant and hyperbolic cosecant of any complex number by the IMSECH(N) and IMCSCH(N) functions, respectively.
Examples:
Formula to Find the Exponential and Logarithms of a Complex Number in Excel
Function  IMEXP  IMLN  IMLOG10  IMLOG2 
Syntax  =IMEXP( N)  =IMLN( N)  =IMLOG10(N)  =IMLOG2(N) 
Argument  N is a valid complex number.  
Return  complex number’s exponential  complex number’s natural logarithms  base 10 logarithms of a complex number  base 2 logarithms of a complex number 
Common Errors 

Examples:
Example #2 : Convert Complex Numbers to Polar Form in Excel
To convert the complex number in rectangular format to polar format, apply the following formula:
=IMABS(B3)&"(cos "&IMARGUMENT(B3)&" + isin "&IMARGUMENT(B3)&")"
Apply DEGREES Function as below to convert the radians to degrees
=IMABS(B3)&"(cos "&DEGREES(IMARGUMENT(B3))&" + isin "&DEGREES(IMARGUMENT(B3))&")"
Apply ROUND Function as below to make a better version of output
=ROUND(IMABS(B3),2)&"(cos "&ROUND(DEGREES(IMARGUMENT(B3)),2)&"Â°"&" + isin "&ROUND(DEGREES(IMARGUMENT(B3)),2)&"Â°)"
Explanation:
Using the IMABS and IMARGUMENT functions, which return the complex number’s magnitude and argument, respectively. To round the data to two decimal places, use the ROUND function.
The “&” operator is then used in the formula to concatenate the magnitude and angle parts of the polar form with formatted text. Magnitude(cos angleÂ° + isin angleÂ°) is the format of the resulting string.
Type #8: Engineering Error Functions in Excel
Function  ERF  ERF.PRECISE  ERFC  ERFC.PRECISE 
Syntax  =ERF( N1, N2 )  =ERF.PRECISE( N )  =ERFC(N)  =ERFC.PRECISE(N) 
Argument 
N1 implies the lower limit of the integral N2 implies the upper limit of the integral (if omitted, N2=0) 
N implies the lower limit of the integral  N implies the lower limit of the integral  N implies the lower limit of the integral 
Return  Calculated error function  Calculated error function of integral taking the lower limit to N and another to zero  Calculated complementary error function of integral taking the lower limit to N and upper limit to zero  Calculated complementary error function of integral taking the lower limit to N and upper limit to infinite 
Common Errors  #VALUE! occurs If numbers are not numeric 
Examples: